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Style Guide

Updated August 2014, references and examples refined June 2015

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Authorities:  Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed.Webster’s New Third International DictionaryChicago Manual of Style, 16th ed.


  • Physical quantities expressed in numerals are followed by an abbreviated form of the unit; a unit of measurement used without a numeral should always be spelled out in the text (e.g., "60%RH" or "Relative humidity was measured…").
  • Metric measurement is preferred, but note that you must use periods after English measurements (e.g., in. [inches], ft. [feet], mi. [mile], lb. [pounds]); there are no periods after metric measurements (e.g., cm [centimeters], mL [milliliters], m [meters]).
  • Spell out acronyms at first mention in text.
  • Do not abbreviate months.
  • Following Chicago Manual 10.28, spell out names of states and provinces in running text (except for DC); use two letter postal codes in references and in postal addresses.
  • Abbreviate Co., Corp., Inc., in citations and source lists; spell out in running text; “&” is permitted in company names, but not in book titles.
  • Spell out individual elements, but abbreviations for compounds are permitted (e.g., CO2) after first mention.
  • Circa: ca. not c. For example, "Fig. 2. Isabel Nagel in Maine, photographed by Gaston Lachaise, ca. 1913."


  • Do not use acronyms or abbreviations (e.g., of analytical methods or institutions).
  • Do not include text citations or references.
  • For an organization’s name in the translated abstract, include the original name in English or the original language followed by the translated name in parentheses.


  • Place after the text, before any other back matter.


  • There is no need to spell out AIC, ANSI, ASTM, DNA, HVAC, ICCROM, ICOM, IIC, ISO, n.d., PCB, pH, PVAC, RNA, TAPPI, UV.


  • Abbreviate street suffixes following Chicago Manual 10.34 and http://www.usps.com; use abbreviations NE, NW, SE, and SW, except where the compass point is the name or part of the name of a street, or the place-name (e.g., South Ave., Northwest Hwy., West Bend, East Orange).
  • Use US Postal Service abbreviations (Chicago Manual 10.28) for states and provinces followed by a zip code (e.g., in addresses, sources of materials list, and author biographies).
  • If more than one author has the same address, use the format: Address as for [name]
  • For England, specify UK.


  • Place after Acknowledgments.
  • Multiple appendices are identified by number and title (e.g., Appendix 1. ADHESIVE PREPARATION, Appendix 2. SEM-EDX ANALYSIS).

Article backmatter

  • Arrange in this order: Acknowledgments, Appendix, Notes, References, Further Reading, Sources of Materials, Author Biographies.

Author Biographies

  • Place last in back matter.
  • Include degrees, current position, mailing address, and e-mail address.
  • Do not capitalize position titles, except when it is a named position (e.g., the Paul M. and Harriet L. Weissman Senior Photograph Conservator).

Book Reviews

  • AUTHOR, TITLE OF BOOK. City: Publisher, 20YY. xxx pages, hardcover, $xx, AIC members $xx. Available from name of organization, address. ISBN xxxx.
  • Use lower case “and” for more than one author; lower case ed. and eds.
  • When citing page numbers, show in parentheses, as (p. 23).


  • Use conventional form in running text (e.g., October 20, 1999) with a comma before and after the year.
  • For date of access of websites, use conventional form.
  • For life dates, use the en dash and do not abbreviate (e.g., 1600–1650).
  • 18th century (no hyphen, no initial cap), however if it appears with a hyphen in the title of a reference, leave it alone.


  • In a numbered sequence of equations, place number in parentheses.
  • Set off equations with italics in running text.


  • In running text, use lower case abbreviation in parentheses (fig. 4), but spell out in sentences (“as seen in figure 4”).
  • In the figure caption, use initial capital and abbreviate: Fig. 4.
  • Referring to more than one figure in running text: (figs. 1, 2) (figs. 1–6).
  • Use letters to designate multiple parts: (figs. 4a, 4b, 4c).
  • For works of art, caption includes artist, title, date, media or materials, dimensions (in metric), credit (including museum number).
  • Credit lines for photographs: Courtesy of…not Photograph courtesy of...
  • The word “magnification” is not needed; use x for times (e.g., 250x).


  • Use initials (with a blank space between initials) and last name when referring to an author in the text; use last name after first mention.
  • Use first names for artists. Give life dates of artists at first mention.


  • Number sections using Arabic numerals
    1.        SECTION HEAD IN ALL CAPS; first paragraph flush left
    1.1        SUBHEAD IN ALL CAPS; first paragraph indented
    1.1.1    Subhead in Initial Caps; first paragraph indented


  • May be set off vertically in outline style, or run into the text. Use numerals if they serve a purpose (e.g., to clearly separate items, to indicate order or importance).
  • For numbered lists set off vertically, the number is followed by a period.
  • For numbered lists in running text, such as figure captions, numbers are enclosed in parentheses:
  • Fig. 1. Layers visible in cross section: (1) ground, (2) paint, (3) varnish, etc.


  • Provide metric measurements for all captions and scientific experiments. English units may be used in addition to the metric where appropriate (e.g., when the English unit dimensions are round numbers or common descriptors of an object, such as 3 x 5 in. card)


  • Limit notes to three.
  • Place in back matter preceded only by Appendix.


  • Use numbers for measurements, for percentages, for 10 and above, for like categories in the same paragraph when at least one is 10 or above.
  • For ratios, use numbers separated by a colon (e.g., 1:4).
  • Use the en dash to indicate a range “up to and including” (e.g., samples 10–16).
  • In technical contexts, omit the comma in four-digit numbers.
  • Treat ordinals as you would cardinal numbers (e.g. first century, 18th century).
  • Hyphenate simple fractions in running text (e.g., three-quarters).
  • For negative numbers in ranges, use “to” instead of a dash (e.g., -2C to -5C).
  • Use Arabic numerals for chapter and volume.

Page Numbers

  • Include page numbers in text citations with direct quotations, or when paraphrasing from a long work in which the concept is not immediately accessible to the reader.
  • Use the en dash to indicate a range of page numbers (e.g., 486–95).

Phone Numbers

  • For US phone numbers, enclose area code in parentheses: (800) xxx-xxxx.
  • International phone numbers should be preceded by the + symbol, followed by the country code, city code, and phone number: +44 171 555 5555.


  • Use the serial comma style (e.g., red, white, and blue - not red, white and blue).
  • Use commas after introductory phrases sparingly.
  • Following a colon that introduces a series within a sentence, do not capitalize following the colon, except for a word that would always be capitalized (e.g., a proper name) or if the items in the series are complete sentences.


  • Set off five or more typed lines as a block quotation.
  • In text citations following direct quotes, include the exact page number: “The question is how to achieve the desired state of controlled absorption” (Hendy and Lucas 1968, 271).

Sources of Materials

  • Appear before Author Biographies.
  • List materials headline style, with initial caps; include materials not commonly available.
  • Group multiple products from a single source.
  • Equipment names in text need not be included.
  • Use abbreviations for Co., Corp., Inc.
  • For formatting style, see Addresses (above)


  • Symbols are permitted in running text where quantities are expressed in numbers (e.g., 35%RH, “monitoring of relative humidity…”); the term “pH” is always permitted.
  • Do not space between number and symbol: 50% not 50 %.
  • Repeat symbol in ranges where it is closed up to the number (35%–50%) but not where the symbol is separated from the number (2 x 5 cm).
  • Do space between number and operation sign: 42  3%.
  • Slash (/) indicates alternatives (except in fractions).
  • Colon (:) indicates ratios.
  • Hyphen (-) joins compounds.
  • Micron is expressed by m.
  • Temperatures are written with °F and °C (e.g., 355°F, 32°C).
  • Use ° (degree symbol) for angles.


  • Title is in headline style with initial caps.
  • Initial caps are used for column heads and for the first word of stub heads.
  • End punctuation is used only for a complete sentence.
  • Place footnotes just below the table, designated by lowercase letters a, b, c, etc.
  • Within the text, refer to table 1, table 2, etc. (using lowercase letters and numerals).
  • Use horizontal rules sparingly; avoid vertical rules unless required for clarity.


  • In running text, the title of a website may be used rather than a URL. The default style is roman character, headline style, but websites that are analogous to books or other types of publications may be styled accordingly. The following are all acceptable usages:
    • Google; Project Gutenberg; Apple.com; NYTimes.com
    • The website of the New York Times; the New York Times online
    • The Chicago Manual of Style Online; “Chicago Style Q&A”
    • Conservators Converse Blog, “From the Bench: A 400-Year-Old Carpet is Restored to Show Original Persian Artistry,” blog entry by Joseph Godla, December 21, 2012.
  • If it is necessary to use a URL in the text, use the full prefix http:// prefix.
  • Use the References to list more details of the website, when necessary (see the section on references below).
  • Use end punctuation if the website address falls at the end of a sentence.

Capitalization, Hyphenation, Spelling, Italics


academic degrees, no periods, as MA, PhD
ad hoc
absorbency, absorbent
ABC fire extinguishers
acc. no.
Acryloid: outdated term; use Paraloid
acknowledgment, acknowledgments
airbrush (adj., n., v.)
air conditioner, air conditioning
air-dry (v.)
albumen: related to egg white, photographic prints
albumin: proteins in blood plasma or serum
alizarin, but Alizarin Blue, Alizarin Red
America (n.), American (adj.): avoid using as synonymous with United States; American permitted as a noun to describe citizens
annual meeting, but AIC Annual Meeting
appendix, appendices: lower case in text citations; abbreviate as app. in references
art-historical (adj.)
article: preferred to the term “paper” but use “essay” except for contributions to symposium proceedings
artist’s intentartist’s materials
artworks: title appears in italics; give date and current location in parentheses except when that information appears in a caption or when the standard catalog number is provided


baroque period
benzotriazole (BTA)
black-and-white (adj.)
block-print (v.)
Blue Wool Standards
bronze disease
brushstroke (n.)
Bunsen burner


ca.: permitted in text
card stock
cast iron (n.); cast-iron (adj.)
catalog, but catalogue raisonné
catalog number
Central Europe
cf.: permitted in parentheses
chair: not chairman
chap. in references; chapter in text
chemical formulas: periods can be on the line rather than above
CIE L*a*b*
cleanup (adj., n.)
climate control (adj.)
codex, codices
cold extraction
cold-flow (v.)
cold-paint (v.)
collection: capitalize only when part of proper name (e.g., the Frick Collection)
color-match (v.)
compendium, compendia
Conclusions: as head, not Conclusion
consortium, consortia
contractions: avoid
craftsperson, craftspeople
cross-reference (adj., n.)
cross-reference in text
(see table 1)
(see fig. 3a)
(see sec. 3)
cross section (adj., n.)
curriculum, curricula


data: takes plural verb
decision maker, decision making (n.)
decision-making (adj.)
drier (when used as an additive)
dryer (when used as an apparatus supplying heat)
dry-clean (v.)
dry-surface-clean (v.)


Eastern Europe
e.g.: permitted in text, confine to parentheses and follow with a comma
energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX)
ensure: means “to make sure of” (insure refers to insurance)
eq: abbreviation for equations
equilibrium, equilibria
equilibrium moisture content (EMC)
equilibrium relative humidity (ERH)
E-SEM: environmental scanning electron microscope, microscopy
et al.: permitted in text
etc.: permitted in text
EVA: no need to spell out


Fellow: initial capital in author biographies
fine-tune (v.)
First Nations
flathead screw
foreign terms: use italics, with roman “s” for Anglicized plurals
formula, formulas
freeze-dry (v.)
fresco, frescoes
FTIR: Fourier transform infrared reflectometry/spectrometry/spectroscopy/analysis
fume hood


gap-fill (v.)
gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC-MS)
gesso, gessoes
-grade: hyphenate as adj.
grass roots (n.)
grassroots (adj.)
gum arabic


half-: hyphenate compounds
halo, haloes
hardcover (adj., n.)
health care
heat-set (adj., v.)
high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filter
high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
horsehair (adj., n.)
hot-air (adj.)
hot-melt (adj.)
HVAC: no need to spell out


i.e.: permitted in text
in situ
in vivo
Inc.: does not require preceding comma
index, indices
infill (n., v.)
ironII, ironIII


Jr.: does not require commas


K: degrees Kelvin (e.g., 5000 K); do not use to express thousands
keV: kiloelectronvolt
kraft paper


laboratory: not lab
leaf-cast (v.)
leaf-casting (n.)
lead white (n.), lead-white (adj.)
legal cases: in italics, as Whistler v. Ruskin
life-size (adj.)
light-age (v.)
light-bleach (v.)
locus, locuses
low-temperature (adj.)
lumen, lumina


M: molar
mA: milliamp
mat board
Material Safety Data Sheet
matrix, matrices
maximum, maxima
medium, media
memorandum, memorandums (not memo)
methyl cellulose
micron: µm
microscopic; preferred to microscopical
mid-: hyphenate compounds
mL: milliliter
mM: millimolar
ms: millisecond
multi: close up compounds


nA: nanoAmps
Native American (adj., n.), Native (adj.)
nm: nanometer
no.: avoid the number symbol #
newton, newtons
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)


off-gas (v.)
Old Masters
oven-age (v.)
oven-dry (v.)
oversize: not oversized


Pa: Pascal
panel painting
paper: permitted in reviews of conference proceedings; otherwise avoid and use the preferred term “article”
paper-splitting (adj., n.)
patents: U.S. patent [no.]
patina, patinas
pendant: not pendent
photograph: not photo as noun (photo as adjective is permitted)
plain-weave (adj.)
plaster of paris
Plastic Wood
policy maker
poly (vinyl chloride), or polyvinyl chloride
polyvinyl acetate
portland cement
pressure-sensitive tape
-proof: hyphenate compounds in all positions
PVAC: no need to spell out


rabbit skin glue
re-: as a prefix, rarely requires hyphenation, see Webster’s New Third
repaint (n., v.)
roller-print (v.)


Salon, the
sand-cast (v.)
scanning electron microscope (SEM)
series: takes singular verb
silk-screen (v.)
-size: in compounds, not –sized (except in references to sized paper)
Spanish Colonial
spectrum, spectra
spot-check (v.)
spot-test (v.)
squeeze-out (n.)
stele, stelae
still life, still lifes (n.)
still-life (adj.)
Stoddard solvent
styles and schools of art: initial capital, as Impressionism, Impressionist
sulfur, sulfide
supp.: abbreviation for supplement
symposium, symposia


text block
the: lowercase in names for institutions in text; can be capitalized in photo credits
thin section (n.); thin-section (adj.)
tide line
titles of exhibitions: set off with italics
titles of published works and artworks in text, series of paintings: capitalize headline style following Chicago Manual
titles of symposia: initial capitals, quotation marks
trade names: initial capitals; do not use ® or ™
trompe l’oeil




Vandyke brown
vice-: hyphenate compounds
vs.: abbreviation of versus; except in legal cases (e.g., Whistler v. Ruskin)


water-clear (adj.)
water-saturated: hyphenate in all positions
web page
wet-clean (v.)
white lead/lead white: be consistent within article; hyphenate as adj.
words as words: in quotation marks
World Wide Web, the Web
worshiped, worshipper
wt%: for weight percent (not w/w%)
w/v: weight/volume


x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF)
x-ray radiography (better than x-radiography)
x-ray powder diffraction (XRD)



Next Page

Documentation: Author-Date System 

The Author-Date System briefly cites sources in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. These short citations are detailed in References at the end of the paper. What follows is a description of the citation style to be used in the JAIC. For more complete details, refer to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition.

In-Text Citation

  • To a reference as a whole:

(Smith 1999)
(Smith 1999, 2002)
(Thomson 1987; Jones 1999; Smith 1999) -- list multiple sources chronologically
(Pratt 1992a, b)
(Singh and Butcher 1990)
(Tucci [1978] 1988)

  • To a specific page in reference:

(Smith 1999, 49)
Include page numbers in text citations only when meaningful: with direct quotations, or when paraphrasing from a long work in which the concept is not immediately accessible to the reader. Do not use page numbers in references to a journal article or short manual except to support a direct quote.

  • Place after author’s name, if possible: Learner (1996) used PyGC-MS to look at a number of synthetic organic pigments.
  • If the author and date are in the text, only the page number is needed: In 1906, Forster (54) said, “A critic has no right to the narrowness which is the frequent prerogative of the creative artist.”
  • For four or more authors, use first author’s last name and et al.:
    • incorrect = (Florian, Kronkright, Swift, and Norton 1992)
      correct = (Florian et al. 1992)

  • If References includes two works of the same year by one author with different coauthors, distinguish them by the second author’s name: (Smith, Jones et al. 2000; Smith, White et al. 2000).


  • For authors’ names, provide initials only for first and middle names; space initials.
  • List all authors; do not use et al. in References.
  • Italicize (do not underline) titles of books and names of journals.
  • Use sentence capitalization for article names and book titles.
  • Convert roman numerals to Arabic for volume numbers.
  • Spell out the title of the journal, and give the volume and page numbers; include issue number, month, or season only when pagination is not continuous through the volume.
  • Arrange entries alphabetically by author’s last name; place Mc after Mb and before Md.
  • For more than one entry by the same author(s), arrange by date, earliest to latest;
  • For more than one entry by same author(s) in the same year, arrange in alphabetical order by title and label a, b, etc., after the year (e.g., 1992a, 1992b, etc.)
  • Place author’s own volume before a book s/he edited.
  • Place single-author entries before multiple-author entries.
  • Arrange entries with the same first author and various multiple authors according to the last name of the second author, not by the number of authors.
  • Alphabetize corporate authors (such as associations) according to the first significant word or acronym.
  • For place of publication, list only the first city; for Canadian publications, provide province and Canada.
  • If there are references not cited in the text, group them after References under Further Reading




Roberson Archive. Hamilton Kerr Institute. Cambridge University, Cambridge, England.

Unpublished Document in Archives

Jones, E. H. 1947. Washington Allston’s painting technique and his place in the colorist tradition. Unpublished typescript. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.


AIC Preprints 

Heller, D. B. 1983. The coating of metal objects at Winterthur. In AIC Preprints. American Institute for Conservation 11th Annual Meeting, Baltimore. Washington, DC: AIC. 57–64. 

AIC Specialty Group Catalogs (print editions)

Samet, W. H. 1998. Factors to consider when choosing a varnish. Paintings Conservation Catalog, vol. 1, Varnishes and Surface Coatings. Washington, DC: AIC. 1:1–20.

Mayer, D. 1994. Fiber identification. Paper conservation catalog. 9th ed. Washington, DC: AIC. 1:1–9.

AIC, Book and Paper Group. 1994. Paper conservation catalog. 9th ed. Washington, DC: AIC.

AIC Specialty Group Catalogs (wiki editions)

AIC, Book and Paper Group. 2014. Paper conservation catalog wiki. Accessed August 1, 2014. http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Paper_Conservation_Catalog.

Mold. 2014. Paper conservation catalog wiki. Accessed August 1, 2014. http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Paper_Conservation_Catalog_-_Mold.

Chapter in a Book

Schniewind, A. P., and D. P. Kronkright. 1984. Strength evaluation of deteriorated wood treated with consolidants. In Adhesives and Consolidants, edited by N. S. Brommelle, 227–316. London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works.

Johnson, T. P. 1982. Pigments in paintings. In Artists’ pigments: A handbook of their characteristics, vol. 4, edited by J. T. Tomb, 227–315. London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works.


Clapp, A. F. 1979. Curatorial care of works of art on paper. Oberlin, OH: Intermuseum Conservation Laboratory.

Edited Book

Zycherman, L. A., and J. R. Schrock, eds. 1988. A guide to museum pest control. Washington, DC: Foundation of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works and Association of Systematics Collections.

Entry in Dictionary or Edited Book

Well-known online and print reference works, such as major dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally cited only in the text, rather than in References:

According to Wikipedia, the Antiquities Act of 1906 allows the president to…

If it is necessary to give a reference, use this format:

Wikipedia. s.vv. “Antiquities Act.” Last modified July 28, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiquities_Act.

Encyclopaedia Britannica. 9th ed. s.v. “Isinglass.”

Use s.v. (sub verbo, “under the word”) for single words, s.vv. for plural.

For less well known reference works, cite in the text and give more complete publication information in the References.

Lewis, R. J. 2007. Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 15th ed. New York: Wiley & Sons. 23-24.

ICOM Preprints

Stone, J. L. 1987. Treatment of 19th-century tracing papers from the Frederick Law Olmsted Collection. ICOM Committee for Conservation preprints. 8th Triennial Meeting, Sydney. Paris: ICOM. 2:731–38.

Later Edition

Mayer, R. 1970. The artist’s handbook of materials and techniques. 3rd ed. New York: Viking Press.

Materials Research Society

Inaba, M., and R. Sugista. 1991. Permanence of washi (Japanese paper). In Materials issues in art and archaeologyvol. 2. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 185, ed. P. Vandiver et al. Pittsburgh: Materials Research Society. 799–804.

Proceedings and Conference titles

Williams, S. R. 1989. Blooms, blushes, transferred images and mouldy surfaces: What are these distracting accretions on art works? Proceedings of the IIC-Canadian Group 14th Annual Conference. Toronto, Canada. 65–84.


Tucci, G. (1978) 1988. The temples of Western Tibet and their artistic symbolism. Reprint, New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan.

Single Volume of a Multivolume Work

Kopp, H. 1847. Geschichte der chemie. Vol. 4. Braunschweig: F. Vieweg und Sohn. 1843-1847.


Tucci, G. 1978. The theory and practice of the mandala. Translated by A. H. Brodrick. New York: Samuel Weiser.

Viollet-le-Duc, E. E. (1854) 1980. The foundations of architecture. Translated by K. D. Whitehead. New York: George Braziller.

Volume in Series

Shahani, C. J., F. H. Hengemihle, and N. Weberg. 1989. The effects of variations in relative humidity on the accelerated aging of paper. In Historic textile and paper materials, vol. 2, Conservation and characterization, ed. S. H. Zeronian and H. L. Needles. Advances in Chemistry Series 410. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society. 63–80.


Article in a Journal

Franey, J. P., and T. E. Graedel. 1985. On the mechanism of silver and copper sulfidation by atmospheric hydrogen sulfide. Corrosion Science 25 (12): 12–15.

Holland, M. 1977. Caring for silver. Modern Silver 50 (April): 10–11.

Torkelson, T. R., H. R. Hoyle, and V. K. Rowe. 1966. Toxicological hazards and properties of commonly

used space, structural and certain fumigants. Pest Control 34 (7): 13–18, 42–50.

Journal Article (not attributed to author)

Consumer Reports. 1978. Silver care products. Consumer Reports 43 (2): 1–10.

Journal Article Published in Installments

Low, M. J. D., and N. S. Baer. 1977. Application of Fourier infrared transform spectroscopy to problems of conservation. Part 1, General principles. Studies in Conservation 22: 116–28.


Paper Presented at Meeting

Daly, D., and S. Michalski. 1986. Recent developments in research in the Fine Arts Laboratory at CCI. Paper presented at the IIC-Canadian Group 12th Annual Conference, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.


Article in a Newspaper

Lore, D. 1990. Gold ship provides bonus of clothing. Columbus Dispatch, November 11.

Association as Author

NBS (National Bureau of Standards). 1951. Preservation of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States. NBS Circular 505. Washington, DC: NBS.


Conservation Information Network, Materials Database. 1989. Vikane, MCIN record 908.


Tutt, L. W. 1984. Excited state distortions, bonding and photochemistry of organometallic compounds. Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles.

Exhibition Brochure

Greenough, S. 1992. Stieglitz in the darkroom. Exhibition brochure. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art. 

In-house Report

McCabe, C. 1993. Reclearing treatments used for aged facsimile palladium prints. Unpublished manuscript, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

Letter in Archives

Benson, F. W. 1926. Letter to Albert Milch, November 3. Milch Gallery Records. Archives of American Art. Microfilm roll 4411, frame 1116.


Skofronick, B. D. 1969. Water-treated shadowmarks. US Patent 3,486,923, filed February 21, 1968, and issued December 30, 1969.

Personal Communication

Personal communications may be cited as (Minter, pers. comm.) or (Benson, unpublished data), and if the person is fully identified in the text they do not require listing in the References. If a reference is necessary to provide more detail, use this form:

Doe, J. 1989. Personal communication. Isotope Laboratory, Institute of Geoplanetary and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles.

Product Information

Dow AgroSciences. 2014. Vikane gas fumigant. MSDS Number 101201548 / A211, issued May 5, 2014. http://www.cdms.net/LDat/mp0KQ019.pdf.

Akemi Plastics. n.d. Acrylic sealant. Technical instruction sheet. Accessed August 4, 2014. http://www.akemina.com/cmsupload/support/bilder/Acrylic_sealant_GB_30.06.2009.pdf.

Technical Leaflet

Fales, M. G. 1967. Care of antique silver. History News 22(2): technical leaflet 40.


Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities. Conservation Center. 1990. Reupholstery of the Milwaukee Art Museum’s Boston easy chair utilizing a new upholstery technique. Boston: the Center. Videocassette (VHS). 18 min.



ANSI (American National Standards Institute). 1993. American National Standard for imaging media, processes safety photographic films, storage. ANSI/NAPM IT9.11-1993. New York: ANSI.

ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). 2011. Standard test method for impact strength of adhesive bonds. ASTM D950-03(2011). Philadelphia: ASTM.

ISO (International Organization for Standardization). 2007. Imaging Materials - Processed imaging materials - Photographic Activity Test for enclosure materials. ISO 18916:2007. Geneva: ISO.

TAPPI (Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry). 2007. Solvent extractives of wood and pulp. TAPPI T204 CM-07. Atlanta: TAPPI.


Website Listing

  • All URLs in references should have the prefix http:// and include a final / wherever they appear.
  • If it is necessary to use a URL in the text, use the full prefix http:// prefix and include any final /.
  • When one is available, list a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) rather than a URL.
  • Only include access dates if there is no date of publication or date of last update. Place the date last accessed in conventional form (e.g., August 4, 2014) before a URL or DOI.
    • Cyclododecane. 2014. CAMEO (Conservation and Art Materials Encyclopedia Online). Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Accessed September 7, 2014. http://cameo.mfa.org/wiki/Cyclododecane.

Citing Online Resources in Print Publications (e.g., print editions of JAIC, BPG Annual)

  • It is only necessary to cite a URL or DOI when the publication only exists online or would be otherwise difficult to locate.
  • When a URL must be broken over a line in printed works, it should be broken before rather than after a slash (/)

Lluveras-Tenorio, A., J. Mazurek, A. Restivo, M. P. Colombini, and I. Bonaduce. 2012. The development of a new analytical model for the identification of saccharide binders in paint samples. PLoS ONE 7 (11): e49383. Accessed July 24, 2014. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049383.

Citing Online Resources in Electronic Publications (e.g., the Specialty Group wikis)

  • Whenever possible, cite a URL or DOI when the publication exists online, and include a hyperlink to the electronic resource.

AIC Meeting Year, Number, and Location List


Meeting Number


1973 1 Kansas City
1974 2 Cooperstown
1975 3 Mexico City
1976 4 Dearborn
1977 5 Boston
1978 6 Fort Worth
1979 7 Toronto
1980 8 San Francisco
1981 9 Philadelphia
1982 10 Milwaukee
1983 11 Baltimore
1984 12 Los Angeles
1985 13 Washington, DC
1986 14 Chicago
1987 15 Vancouver
1988 16 New Orleans
1989 17 Cincinnati
1990 18 Richmond
1991 19 Albuquerque
1992 20 Buffalo
1993 21 Denver
1994 22 Nashville
1995 23 St. Paul
1996 24 Norfolk
1997 25 San Diego
1998 26 Washington, DC
1999 27 St. Louis
2000 28 Philadelphia
2001 29 Dallas
2002 30 Miami
2003 31 Washington, DC
2004 32 Portland, OR
2005 33 Minneapolis, MN
2006 34 Providence, RI
2007 35 Richmond, VA
2008 36 Denver, CO
2009 37 Los Angeles, CA
2010 38  Milwaukee, WI 
2011 39  Philadelphia, PA 
2012  40  Albuquerque, NM 
2013  41  Indianapolis, IN
2014  42  San Francisco, CA 
2015  43  Miami, FL 
2016  44  Montreal, Canada 
2017  45  Chicago, IL 
2018  46  Houston, TX 


 Table 1. Table Style

AIC books for sale