Water and Paper


The Foundation of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic & Artistic Works
in partnership with Buffalo State College Art Conservation Department and
University of Texas at Austin School of Information,
The Kilgarlin Center for the Preservation of the Cultural Record
presents two “Master Studies” Workshops

July 28-31, 2009 in Austin, Texas
August 4-7, 2009 in Buffalo, New York

Instructors
Prof. Dr. Gerhard Banik, University of Applied Arts Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Prof. Dr. Irene Brückle, State Academy of Art and Design, Stuttgart, Germany

Four day workshop, Tuesday through Friday, 9 a.m. – 5 p.m.
Conducted at the Art Conservation Department of Buffalo State College, and at
University of Texas at Austin School of Information,
The Kilgarlin Center for the Preservation of the Cultural Record

Course Fee: $550 AIC members; $800 non-members
This program is funded by a grant from the National Endowment from the Humanities and by funds from the FAIC Endowment for Professional Development. Without this funding, the registration fee would be $1400.
Enrollment Limit: 12
Registration Deadline: June 15, 2009 (or until course is filled).

Participants should have basic knowledge of papermaking and aqueous conservation treatment methods. Selection of participants will be based on the following criteria: order of receipt of registration; professional experience and training; balance of institutional and private practice conservators; number of registrants from a single organization. Preference will be given to AIC Professional Associate and Fellow members. Early registration is advised.

Description
This four-day course explains the basic principles that determine the interaction of paper and water. This topic is of primary importance to conservators, because water plays an important role in the production of paper, in its deterioration, and is also the most essential agent in the conservation treatment of paper. The course, based on customized audio-visual training aids and workshop exercises developed over the course of a four-year project specifically for conservation education and training purposes, integrates knowledge from the paper engineering, sciences and conservation disciplines.

Objectives
Participants will be able to understand the many complex interactions between water and paper by their fundamental principles. They will be able to better judge how, during conservation treatment, the presence of water impacts paper artifacts. This will enable them to evaluate aqueous conservation treatments, including washing, deacidification, and drying wet paper. Participants will develop a clear understanding of important conservation concepts that involve the absorption and desorption of water from paper, the movement of water inside the paper sheet, the wetting of paper, and the properties of water as a transporting and swelling agent in paper.

Content
Theoretical basis:

Chemistry and structure of water
Principles of adsorption and desorption of water on cellulose
The influence of pulp processing variables on the interaction of paper and water (pulping, bleaching, beating)
The influence of paper sizing on the interaction of paper and water (internal and surface sizing)
The influence of water on the aging of paper
Practical work:
The relevance of the theoretical insights gained during the first part of the seminar for paper conservation treatment practice will be discussed. A selection of treatments will be discussed and demonstrated with the aid of mock-ups:
liquid water, water vapor and aerosols
local vs. overall application of water
transport of treatment chemicals into and out of paper
Water, the only existing inorganic solvent, is the most important substance interacting with cellulose and paper. Water plays a significant role in the production of paper, has a major influence on paper deterioration and cellulose degradation, and serves many essential functions in paper conservation. In conservation, water acts as a solvent, cleaning- and plasticizing agent, and as a transporting agent for substances that are introduced into the damaged paper structure during treatment. With the aid of visual models, this seminar will explain the basic scientific principles that govern the chemistry of water and the relationship between water and cellulose.

About the Instructors
Gerhard Banik holds a Ph.D. in chemistry from the Technical University in Vienna. He was head of the graduate paper conservation education program Studiengang Restaurierung und Konservierung von Graphik, Archiv- und Bibliotheksgut at the Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste Stuttgart from its inception in 1990 until 2008. From 1993 to 1999, he acted as co-ordinator of the Graphic Documents working group of the ICOM Committee for Conservation. He teaches regularly at the University of Applied Arts Vienna.Gerhard Banik has been continuously involved over the past 20 years in scientific paper conservation research. He has worked on cleaning problems of painted surfaces, application of enzyme poultices on paper, the consolidation of powdery paint on paper and parchment. His most recent work concerns the treatment of iron gall ink corrosion on paper, and evaluation of mass deacidification technologies for library and archives materials. He is co-editor and main author together with Irene Brückle, Stuttgart, of the forthcoming book “Paper and Water: A Guide for Conservators” (Elsevier).

Irene Brückle is the newly appointed head of the graduate paper conservation education program Studiengang Restaurierung und Konservierung von Graphik, Archiv- und Bibliotheksgut at the Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste Stuttgart where she also obtained her Ph.D. From 2005 to 2008, she was Head of Conservation at the Kupferstichkabinett, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Previously, she was responsible for paper conservation education at the Art Conservation Department, Buffalo State College (lecturer 1991-1993, full-time faculty 1994-2004). She received her initial training in conservation in Germany, interned in American museums (1988-1990), and was recipient of a Getty Foundation research fellowship (1090-1991). In 2005, she received the Sheldon and Caroline Keck Award for sustained Excellence in Conservation Education by the American Institute for Conservation. She is co-editor and main author together with Gerhard Banik, Vienna, of the forthcoming book “Paper and Water: A Guide for Conservators” (Elsevier).

This program is funded in part by a grant from the
National Endowment for the Humanities
This program is also funded by the
FAIC Endowment for Professional Development,
which is supported by The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
and by contributions from members of the
American Institute for Conservation of Historic & Artistic Works.
Without this funding, the registration fee for this workshop would be $1400

Special thanks to Elizabeth Peña and Karen Pavelka